The Union of Principates 1859

The ingfringement of Revolution did not distroied the wish of romanians to carry out programmes form 1848. To this thing , an important role had the exiled romanians who spreaded in the whole Europe.

The Ottoman Empire and the Tzarist Russia, defying the interests of Romanian people and insured themselves the right to dispose of its fate, they concluded at Balta Liman, in the Spring of 1849 a Convention available for seven years which prejudiciated gravely the sovereignity of Principates.Through Convention, the voivodes of the two countries, considered as high officials of Ottoman Empire, were named directly by the sultan with the accord of the "protector" power (Russia) for seven years. The public assemblies (ordinary and extraordinary) were suspended, in their place being Councils or Ad-hoc Divans, in Principates were settled 25,00 soldiers from each of the two powers, on the basis of Convention vere named the princes: Barbu Stirbey in Romanian Country and Grigore Alexandru Ghica in Moldavia.

Against the decision from Balta Liman, the romanians emigration addresed a protest to French National Assembly and from C.A.Rosetti`s initiative, at Paris, at the begining of June 1848 it was constitued the Romanian Democrate Committee.

Crimea`s war, unleashed during 1853 was a result of contradiction between the powers, it had important consequences on european field: the infringement of Russia created a new stability on the continent and permited that romanian problema to be treated as an european one.

Through the peace treaty settled at Paris on 18th/3rd March 1856, Romanian Principates were situated under the colective guarantee of the powers that signed the international act. It solicited the meeting at Bucharest of a Committee made up from the representants of the states that signed the act, haveing the obligation to examine the internal state of the country and to make proposals regardiing the reorganisation. Turkey-had to take care of the convening in the two Principates of some Ad-hoc Divans, which had to eaxpress the wish of romanians.

Still from the begining of works of the Congress, the representatives of the great Powers were informed about the union desire of romanians, and during the debates it makes evident the different positions of the Powers concerning the Union. France supported the makeing of Union under a foreign prince, for the Union pronounced Russia, Prussia and Sardinia, England did not pronounce, the problem remaining opened. Against the Union where from the begining Turkey and Austria, because each of them had under possesion romanian lands.

After 1853, the moldavian and vallachian revolutionars from 1848 came back in the country. The leaders of unionist movement organised themselves in a political formation called "The National Party", it were formed Committees of Union that had done a large popularity to the political national programme: the autohonooomy and the neutrality of Principates, the Union, a foreign prince, a representative govern a single Assembly.

Solemnitatea deschiderii Adunarii Ad-Hoc din Tara Româneasca

la 30 septembrie 1857 (Litografie de Carol Popp de Szathmary)

The debates of the Ad-hoc Assambly opened in September 1857 and for the first time were present peasant deputies, and for the first time all the social and political forces were called to pronounce in a decesive matter for the future of Roumania. In the days of 7-8 October/19-20th October 1857, the Ad-hoc Assamblies of Moldavia and of Romanian Country voted similar resolutions, exprimeing with one voice their will of union.

The demands of the Ad-hoc Assamblies, comprised in a raport of the Committees of European Powers were submited to the representatives of garant powers at Conference froom Paris from 10/22nd May - 7/19th August 1858. It was adopted a Convention which contained the international statute and the organisation principales of Principates, it offered to romanians an incomplete union.

The state resulted in this way had to be called the United Principates of Moldavia and Wallachia, but with exceptuin of two institutes truely united - the Central Committee and the High Court of Cassation and Justice - both of them with residence at Focsani, in the two countries would had to be two princes, separated assamblies and governs. We must precise that through Convention it didn`t encourage nor it didn`t discourage "the National Party" from the two countries on its aspiration to union, because nowhere it didn`t stipulate that the princes choosed in the two countries had to be different persons.

The Convention from Paris comprised some important principales as the abolition of privileges and of monopolies, it established the raport between the owners and the peasants on new basis, the electoral law provided a raised censury, a restriction incoompatible with the progres.

It needed that the Union to be carried out through an energical, national act which had to put the europen diplomacy before an accomplished fact. That is why, with good reasons, V. Boerescu in "The National" from 14/26th August 1858 showed that: "Europe helped us, it remain us to help ourselves. We thank Europe that it showed us that the Union can be possible".

In the Elective Assembly of Moldavia, after many disputes, it was proposed and voted unanimously princee at 5/17 January 1858, Alexandru Ioan Cuza, "a new man at new laws" - as appreciated Mihail Kogalniceanu.

The Elective Assembly of Romanian Country was dominated by conser vatives, that is why the victory of the national cause was possible only by the firm intervention of mases.

Over 30,000 people were around the Assembly`s building in those historical days: in a secrete meeting, the deputy Vasile Boerescu proposed at 24th January 1859, also the election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza, a proposal accepted unanimously.

The election of same prince in both two Principates represented a ramarkable victory of romanian people in the fight for formeing a unitar, national state.

The european powers, gathered at Conflerence form Paris, at 26th August/6th September 1859, and under the pression of internationa; events - the breaking out of war of France and Sardinia against Austria was imminently - they were obliged to accept the fact accommplished by the romanians. Cuza was recognised as prince of Principates, a recognise limited only at his term of life.

The act from 24th January 1859 inaugurated the politics of accomplished fact and determined on international plan a contracdictory reaction: it was accepted by France, Russia, Sardinia and Prussia, it was received with prudent reserve by English govern, Cuza`s double election was combated by Turkey and Austria.

Tronurile domnesti ale lui Alexandru Ioan Cuza

si Elenei Cuza

The situation created in the two Principates was the object of the Conferences form Paris between 26th March/7th April - 25th August/6th September 1859, where finally, it was recognised the double election by all euriopean powers. An important role in the achivement of this objective, in the absence of some diplomatical representances, had the special missions, sent in european capitals to explain the fact and to carry on negaotiation with the Powers that signed the Treaty from Paris. The international recognition of the double election and of the full Union opened the prospect of formeing the modern Romania.

An extremly important support in putting into practice the great reforms had the voivode from the cabinet leaded by Mihail Kogaliniceanu 12/24 October 1863 - 26th January/7th February 1865

Mihail Kogălniceanu (1817 - 1891)

During Kogaliniceanu`s governation it were adopted: the law of secularization the monastery`s properties, the law of organisation the military force,the instruction law, the communal law, and after franch model, it was put into practice the penal code and the code of penal procedure and the Justice`s organisation law. The electoral and rural laws, in spite of haveing some limits, they helped much at the foollowing development of the young state. By the Proclamation (given at 26th August 1864) it could read omong others: "Since today, you are master on your hand you have a pieece of land, your property and your estate, since today you have a motherland to love and to defend".

The difficult situation from inside the country, where Cuza was suspected by radicls that he would intend to perpetuate the personal regime, the anxiety proveked on external plan by the fearings that Romania would desire to proclame its independence, diminished the voivode`s position and reanimated the activity of the awful colalition that decided to eliminate him. The conspirators succeded to accomplish their plans: drawing on their side a part of army (the colonel C.Haralambie, the major D.Lecca, andd so on), they obliged the voivode to resign the crown in the night of 10th/22nd - 11th/23rd February 1866. It was instituted an ad-interium rulers made up of L.Catargiu, N.Golescu and the colonel Haralambie from armmy`s part. The leading of govern came to Ion Ghica, then the Senate and the Committee proclamed as prince Philip of Flandra, from belgian reining house, but he did not accept the crown.

In our international history, Alexandru Ioan Cuza represents an indisputable personality: in the period while he was at the helm of the country took place structural changes that opened the way to develop the romanian state. Cuza prooved competence and patriotism, he ruled with dignity and lack of interest, havening assured a stabile place in the memory of our people. He passed away far from the country, at Heildelberg, Germany, in the night of 15th May 1875 and he was buried at Rugionasa. Before the grave, Minail Kogalniceanu said: "His eternal memory will not raze from our hearts and from our sons' hearts, as long this country will have a history, the most beautiful page will be the one of Alexandru Ioan Cuza".